Mexico is a country that historically has been a country of emigration, immigration and migratory transit. Today it is estimated that almost twelve million people born in Mexico live temporarily or permanently with or without documents in the United States.
According to data from the 2010 National Population and Housing Census, United States nationals represent the largest group of the immigrant population in Mexico with 76.4% of the total in 2010 and with a clear positive trend.
Migrant population by region Immigrants residing in Mexico by region of birth, 1990, 2000 and 2010
Region of birth
Notes: 1 / Central America includes Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,
Nicaragua and Panama.
2 / South America concentrates Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. The Guyanas and Suriname are not represented because in the census samples of the three years there was not a single case of people born in Suriname, and in the Guyanas there was only one case in 2010. Source: CONAPO estimates based on the INEGI, ten percent samples from the XI General Population and Housing Census, 1990; XII General Population and Housing Census, 2000, and Population and Housing Census, 2010. http://www.omi.gob.mx/es/OMI/Cuadros_Inmigrantes_en_Mexico
Immigrants residing in Mexico by country of birth 1990, 2000 and 2010 (Selected countries)
Source: CONAPO estimates based on INEGI, ten percent samples from the XI General Population and
Housing Census , 1990, XII General Population and Housing Census, 2000, and Population and Housing Census 2010.
http: // www .conapo.gob.mx / es / CONAPO / Poblacion_inmigrante_residente_en_Mexico
The total number of international migrants in Mexico reached 968,147, a figure that represented 0.86% of the total population.
Total immigrants in Mexico as a percentage of the total population
Number of international migrants
International migrants as a percentage of the total population
nineteen ninety five
Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: The 2005 Revision, http://esa.un.org/migration, [For 1990 - 2005, consulted on 2- 03-09].
For 2010 with data from Conapo.
IRREGULAR MIGRATION AND TRANSMIGRANTS
Based on foreigners housed in immigration stations, the Center for Migration Studies of the Migration Policy Unit, SEGOB, highlights the Honduran, Guatemalan and Salvadoran population with the highest number of foreigners housed, which together corresponds to 94% of the total number of irregular flows.
Events of foreigners housed in immigration stations, by continent, country of nationality and federal entity, January-May 2013
Remittances, that is, money transfers from abroad have constituted an important source of resources for many receiving families, mainly for their consumption and maintenance.
According to the latest record, in 2013 remittances totaled $ 21.596 billion, that is, 3.75% less than the previous year and 20% less than the level reached in 2007.
Source: Own elaboration with data from Banxico
Current figures estimate that around 11.7 million Mexicans reside in the United States. 1This historical process has been accompanied by some waves of massive deportations of Mexican migrants from the United States, mainly due to the forced return of hundreds of thousands of Mexican migrants who are detained annually by the US immigration authority.
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS AND TRAFFICKING OF MIGRANTS
According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Mexico is a country of origin, transit and destination for human trafficking for the purposes of sexual and labor exploitation. 1
The legal basis to eradicate the crime of trafficking in persons in Mexico is the General Law to prevent, punish and eradicate crimes in the matter of Trafficking in Persons and for the protection and assistance to the victims of these crimes of June 14, 2012. On April 14, 2010, the government of Mexico launched the Blue Heart Campaign proposed by UNODC. The objective is to give visibility to the problem through dissemination and awareness actions. To date, more than 60 substantive activities have been carried out and more than 18,000 people have been trained in the DF and various states of the country.
Mexico is classified as a level 2 country, that is, it is one of those countries whose governments do not fully comply with the minimum standards regarding crimes of trafficking in persons but which make considerable efforts to comply with them. 2
In November 2007, in compliance with the international obligations acquired, the Law to Prevent and Punish Trafficking in Persons came into force. During that same year, the criminal type of human trafficking was established in the Federal Penal Code. Likewise, in February 2009 the Regulation of the Law to Prevent and Punish Trafficking in Persons was published.
In compliance with the Law, the Intersecretarial Commission to Prevent and Punish Human Trafficking was established, made up of nine Executive Secretaries and the Attorney General’s Office. Likewise, the National System for the Integral Development of the Family, the National Institute of Women, the National Institute of Migration, the National Institute of Criminal Sciences, the National Population Council, the Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples and the Mexican Commission for Aid to Refugees. The Law also provides for the participation as guests of representatives of the legislative power, civil society organizations, autonomous public bodies and academia.
It highlights the power granted to the Special Prosecutor’s Office for Crimes of Violence against Women and Human Trafficking of the Office of the Attorney General of the Republic in 2008, to investigate and prosecute the crimes provided for in the Law to Prevent and Punish Trafficking in Persons.
On February 11, 2010, the Special Commission to Combat Human Trafficking was installed in the Chamber of Deputies.
United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Palermo Convention) and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol) in 2003.
Mexico has not ratified:
The International Convention on the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families of 1990
The 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol
The 2000 United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons
The 2002 Protocol against the Trafficking of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air
Mexico is a signatory of:
ILO Convention 100 on equal pay
ILO Convention 111 on discrimination in occupation and employment